Reports and publications

Fostering impact and ensuring the highest quality tests of communicative and performance skills

Trinity supports a varied research programme to gather evidence for the quality of our assessment products as well as to continue learning and developing our offer to teachers, learners, and the community. Research is conducted by Trinity staff and external researchers. We regularly support promising newcomers in their PhD and Masters research.

Research reports

Griffiths, M. (2019). An Investigation into Teacher and Student Views, Attitudes and Behaviours Towards English in Asturias, Spain. Trinity Research Report 2019-01. London, UK: Trinity College London.

Griffiths, M. & Bentley, J. (2019). The Assessment of Speaking and Listening (ASL) Project: An Impact Study. Trinity Research Report 2019-02. London, UK: Trinity College London.

The ASL Project: Establishing the Sustainability of a Teacher Training and Assessment Initiative (Research In Brief)

Papageorgiou, S. (2007). Relating the Trinity College LondonGESE and ISE examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference: Final Project Report. London, UK: Trinity College London.

Borg, S., Anderson, J., Beaumont, B., Xie, K., Guo, Y., Thorburn, R., Choi, T., Kim, H. J., Aizawa, I., & Fujinaga, K. (2022). The continuing professional development experiences and needs of English language teachers (Countries: China, Japan and Korea). London, UK: British Council.

Journal articles

Brunfaut, T., Harding, L. & Batty, A. O. (2018). Going online: The effect of mode of delivery on performances and perceptions on an English L2 writing test suiteAssessing Writing, 36, 3 – 18. [Open Access]

Chan, S. (2018). Some evidence of the development of L2 reading-into-writing skills at three levelsLanguage Education and Assessment, 1(1), 9-27. [Open Access]

Chan, S., Inoue, C. & Taylor, L. (2015). Developing rubrics to assess the reading-into-writing skills: A case studyAssessing Writing, 26, 20 – 37.

Gablasova, D., Brezina, V. & McEnery, T. (2017). Collocations in corpus-based language learning research: identifying, comparing and interpreting the evidenceLanguage Learning, 67(S1), 130-154. [Open Access]

Gablasova, D., Brezina, V. & McEnery, T. (2017). Exploring learner language through corpora: Comparing and interpreting corpus frequency informationLanguage Learning, 67(S1), 155-179. [Open Access]

Gablasova, D., Brezina, V., Mcenery, T., & Boyd, E. (2017). Epistemic stance in spoken L2 English: The effect of task and speaker styleApplied Linguistics, 38(5), 613-637. [Open Access]

International Journal of Learner Corpus Research Special Issue (2019). [Open Access to two articles]

McEnery, A., Brezina, V., Gablasova, D., & Banerjee, J. (2019). Corpus Linguistics, Learner Corpora, and SLA: Employing Technology to Analyze Language UseAnnual Review of Applied Linguistics, 39, 74 - 92. [Open Access]

Papageorgiou, S. (2010). Investigating the decision-making process of standard setting participantsLanguage Testing, 27(2), 261 - 281. DOI: 10.1177/0265532209349472

Revesz, A. & Brunfaut, T. (2013). Text characteristics of task input and difficulty in second language listening comprehensionStudies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 31 - 65. DOI:10.1017/S0272263112000678

Revesz, A., Kourtali, N. & Mazgutova, D. (2017). Effects of task complexity on L2 writing behaviors and linguistic complexityLanguage Learning: A Journal of Research in Language Studies,  67(1), 208 - 241. DOI: 10.1111/lang.12205

Taylor, L. & Banerjee, J. (2023). Accommodations in language testing and assessment: Safeguarding equity, access, and inclusion. Language Testing Volume 40, Issue 4 [Open Access]

Wall, D. & Taylor, C. (2014). Communicative Language Testing (CLT): Reflections on the “Issues Revisited” From the Perspective of an Examinations BoardLanguage Assessment Quarterly, 11(2), 170 - 185. DOI: 10.1080/15434303.2014.902058

Book chapters

Boyd, E. & Taylor, C. (2016). Presenting validity evidence: The case of GESE. In Banerjee, J. & Tsagari, D. (Eds.). Contemporary Second Language Assessment (pp. 37 – 59). London, UK: Bloomsbury.

Cervantes, I. M. & Gablasova, D. (2017). Phrasal verbs in spoken L2 English: The effect of L2 proficiency and L1 background. In: Brezina, V. & Flowerdew, L. (eds.): Written and spoken learner corpora and their use in different contexts, Bloomsbury.

Gablasova, D. & Brezina, V. (2015). Does speaker role affect the choice of epistemic adverbials in L2 speech? Evidence from the Trinity Lancaster Corpus. In Romero-Trillo, J. (Ed.) Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics. Springer.

Gablasova, D. & Brezina, V. (2017). Disagreement in L2 spoken English: From learner corpus research to corpus-based teaching materials. In: Brezina, V. & Flowerdew, L. (Eds.): Written and spoken learner corpora and their use in different contexts, Bloomsbury.

Nakatsuhara, F. (2018). Investigating examiner interventions in relation to the listening demands they make on candidates in oral interview tests. In Ockey, G. & Wagner, E. (Eds.). Assessing L2 Listening: Moving Towards Authenticity (pp. 205 – 225). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.


Chan, S. (2018). Defining Integrated Reading-into-Writing Constructs: Evidence at the B2 C1 Interface. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.


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